A demonstrative pronoun refers to a specific person(s) or thing(s) in particular. In English, the following words are demonstrative pronouns: “this”, “that”, “these”, “those”.
In Biblical Hebrew, demonstrative pronouns can function either as nouns or adjectives. Demonstrative pronouns can change form according to gender (masculine or feminine) and number (singular or plural) but NOT according to person (i.e. first, second, or third person).
|masculine singular near||(or זֶה (זֹה / זֹו||zeh (or zow / zoh)||this|
|feminine singular near||זֹאת||zoth||this|
|masculine singular far||הוּא||hu||that|
|feminine singular far||הִיא||hi||that|
|common plural near||אֵלֶּה||‘elleh||these|
|masculine plural far||הֵם / הֵמָּה||hemmah / hem||those|
|feminine plural far||הֵנָּה||hennah||those|
The “far” demonstrative pronouns are identical to certain personal pronouns and must be distinguished by the context.
Demonstrative pronouns can be used to distinguish individuals within a group interacting with each other.
|וְקָרָ֨א זֶ֤ה אֶל־זֶה֙|
|weqara zeh ‘el-zeh|
|And-it-called this to_this|
|And each one called to another|
as an attributive adjective¶
When used as an attributive adjective, a demonstrative pronoun often follows the noun, and both terms can take the definite article. Sometimes neither the noun nor the demonstrative pronoun takes the definite article. In either case, the demonstrative pronoun makes the described noun definite.
|this business of ours|
|And-behold this angel|
|Suddenly an angel|
As a relative particle¶
|הַר־צִ֝יֹּ֗ון זֶ֤ה׀ שָׁכַ֬נְתָּ בֹּֽו׃|
|har-tsiyyown zeh shakhanta bow|
|Mount_Zion this you-lived in-it.|
|Mount Zion, where you live.|
|Leviathan, which you formed|
|אֶ֤רֶץ מִצְרַ֙יִם֙ לְפָנֶ֣יךָ הִ֔וא|
|‘erets mitsrayim lefaneykha hiw|
|Land-of Egypt to-your-face that|
|The land of Egypt is before you|