Suffix Pronominal


Pronominal suffixes refer to a person(s) or thing(s) and can be attached to nouns, verbs, prepositions, participles, infinitives, even some particles. A pronominal suffix nearly always functions as either a personal pronoun (for example, “I” or “me” in English) or a possessive pronoun (for example, “my” or “mine” in English).


A pronominal suffix refers to a person(s) or a thing(s) and can change form according to gender (masculine or feminine), number (singular or plural), and person (first, second, or third person). These various suffixes look quite similar to their corresponding personal pronouns. Only nouns in the construct state can take a pronominal suffix.


In Biblical Hebrew, a noun always becomes definite when a pronominal suffix is attached to it.



Pronominal Suffix with a Singular Noun
Parsing Hebrew Transliteration Gloss
common singular first person סוּסִי susi my horse
masculine singular second person סוּסְךָ suskha your horse
feminine singular second person סוּסֵךְ susekh your horse
masculine singular third person סוּסוֹ / סוּסֹה / סוּסֵהוּ suso / susoh / susehu his horse
feminine singular third person סוּסהָ / סוּסָהּ susha / susah her horse
common plural first person סוּסֵנוּ susenu our horse
masculine plural second person סוּסְכֶם susekhem your horse
feminine plural second person סוּסְכֶן susekhen your horse
masculine plural third person סוּסְהֶם / סוּסָם susehem / susam their horse
feminine plural third person סוּסְהֶן / סוּסָן susehen / susan their horse
Pronominal Suffix with a Plural Noun
Parsing Hebrew Transliteration Gloss
common singular first person סוּסַי susay my horses
masculine singular second person סוּסֶיךָ susekha your horses
feminine singular second person סוּסַיִךְ susayikh your horses
masculine singular third person סוּסָיו susayw his horses
feminine singular third person סוּסֶיהָ suseyha her horses
common plural first person סוּסֵינוּ susenu our horses
masculine plural second person סוּסֵיכֶם susekhem your horses
feminine plural second person סוּסֵיכֶן susekhen your horses
masculine plural third person סוּסֵיהֶם susehem their horses
feminine plural third person סוּסֵיהֶן susehen their horses


Attached to a noun

When attached to a noun, a pronominal suffix functions as a personal pronoun in a construct relationship with the noun to which it is attached. Very often, the pronoun functions as a possessive attributive adjective indentifying the person(s) or thing(s) in possession of that noun.

Example: 2SA 17:23
וַיָּ֜קָם וַיֵּ֤לֶךְ אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ֙ אֶל־עִיר֔וֹ
wayyaqom wayyelekh ‘el-betho ‘el-‘iro
And-he-stood-up and-went to_his-house to_his-city
He went home to his own city
Example: 2SA 19:4 (2SA 19:1 in Hebrew)
בְּנִ֤י אַבְשָׁלֹום֙ בְּנִ֣י בְנִ֣י
beni ‘avshalowm beni veni
My-son Absalom my-son my-son
My son Absalom, my son, my son!
Example: EZR 9:12
וְ֠עַתָּה בְּֽנֹותֵיכֶ֞ם אַל־תִּתְּנ֣וּ לִבְנֵיהֶ֗ם וּבְנֹֽתֵיהֶם֙ אַל־תִּשְׂא֣וּ לִבְנֵיכֶ֔ם
we’attah benowthekhem ‘al-tittenu livnehem uvenothehem ‘al-tis’u livnekhem
And-now your-daughters not_give to-their-sons and-their-daughters not_take for-your-sons
So now, do not give your daughters to their sons; do not take their daughters for your sons

Attached to a finite verb

A pronominal suffix can be attached to any finite verb conjugation to indicate the direct object of the verb. In these cases, the pronominal suffix always functions as a personal pronoun.

Example: GEN 37:14
וַיִּשְׁלָחֵ֨הוּ֙ מֵעֵ֣מֶק חֶבְרֹ֔ון וַיָּבֹ֖א שְׁכֶֽמָה׃
wayyishlahehu me’emeq hevrown wayyavo shekhemah
and-he-sent-him from-Valley-of Hebron and-he-came-in Shechem.
So he sent him out of the Valley of Hebron, and he went to
Example: 2CH 15:2
וְאִֽם־תִּדְרְשֻׁ֨הוּ֙ יִמָּצֵ֣א לָכֶ֔ם
we’im-tidreshuhu yimmatse lakhem
And-if_you-seek-him he-will-be-found by-you
If you seek him, he will be found by you
Example: HOS 8:7
זָרִ֖ים יִבְלָעֻֽהוּ׃
zarim yivla’uhu
strangers will-swallow-him
foreigners will devour it

Attached to a preposition

Similar to verbs, a pronominal suffix attached to a preposition is always the object of that preposition, functioning as a personal pronoun.


Example: 1SA 25:28
וְרָעָ֛ה לֹא־תִמָּצֵ֥א בְךָ֖ מִיָּמֶֽיךָ׃
wera’ah lo-thimmatse vekha miyyameykha
and-evil not_will-be-found in-you from-your-days
and evil will not be found in you so long as you live.
Example: JOB 39:12
הֲתַאֲמִ֣ין בֹּ֖ו
hatha’amin bow
Do-you-believe in-him
Will you depend on him?


Example: 2KI 17:15
אֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֤ה יְהוָה֙ אֹתָ֔ם לְבִלְתִּ֖י עֲשֹׂ֥ות כָּהֶֽם׃
‘asher tsiwwah yehwah ‘otham levilti ‘asowth kahem
whom had-commanded Yahweh [dir.obj]-them to-abstain doing
those that Yahweh had commanded them not to do like them.
Example: ISA 46:9
וְאֶ֥פֶס כָּמֹֽונִי׃
we’efes kamowni
and no-one like-me
and there is no one like me.

לְ and אֶל

Example: EXO 19:5
כִּי־לִ֖י כָּל־הָאָֽרֶץ׃
ki-li kol-ha’arets
for_to-me all_the-earth
for all the earth is mine.
Example: EXO 9:13
וְאָמַרְתָּ֣ אֵלָ֗יו
we’amarta ‘elayw
and-say to-him
and say to him
Example: JDG 11:36
וַתֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלָ֗יו
wattomer ‘elayw
And-she-said to-him
She said to him


Example: DEU 17:14
אָשִׂ֤ימָה עָלַי֙ מֶ֔לֶךְ
‘asimah ‘alay melekh
I-will-set over-me king
I will set a king over myself
Example: ISA 62:5
יָשִׂ֥ישׂ עָלַ֖יִךְ אֱלֹהָֽיִךְ׃
yasis ‘alayikh ‘elohayikh
he-will-rejoice over-you your-God.
your God will rejoice over you.


Example: 2CH 8:8
אֲשֶׁ֨ר נֹותְר֤וּ אַחֲרֵיהֶם֙ בָּאָ֔רֶץ
‘asher nowthru ‘aharehem ba’arets
who were-left after-them in-the-land
who were left after them in the land
Example: JER 9:16 (JER 9:15 in Hebrew)
וְשִׁלַּחְתִּ֤י אַֽחֲרֵיהֶם֙ אֶת־הַחֶ֔רֶב
weshillahti ‘aharehem ‘eth-haherev
and-I-will-send-out after-them [dir.obj]_the-sword
I will send out a sword after them


Example: DEU 28:23
וְהָאָ֥רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־תַּחְתֶּ֖יךָ בַּרְזֶֽל׃
weha’arets ‘asher-tahteykha barzel
and-the-earth which_under-you will-be-iron.
and the earth that is under you will be iron.
Example: PSA 47:3 (PSA 47:4 in Hebrew)
יַדְבֵּ֣ר עַמִּ֣ים תַּחְתֵּ֑ינוּ
yadber ‘ammim tahtenu
He-will-drive-back peoples beneath-us
He subdues peoples under us


Example: NUM 23:18
הַאֲזִ֥ינָה עָדַ֖י בְּנֹ֥ו צִפֹּֽר׃
ha’azinah ‘aday benow tsippor
Listen unto-me son-of Zippor.
Listen to me, you son of Zippor.
Example: AMO 4:10
וְלֹֽא־שַׁבְתֶּ֥ם עָדַ֖י
welo-shavtem ‘aday
And-not you-have-returned unto-me
Yet you have not returned to me


Example: GEN 22:12
וְלֹ֥א חָשַׂ֛כְתָּ אֶת־בִּנְךָ֥ אֶת־יְחִידְךָ֖ מִמֶּֽנִּי׃
welo hasakhta ‘eth-binkha ‘eth-yehidekha mimmenni
and-not you-witheld [dir.obj]_your-son [dir.obj]_your-only
you have not withheld your son, your only son, from me.
Example: 1CH 29:14
כִּֽי־מִמְּךָ֣ הַכֹּ֔ל
ki-mimmekha hakkol
for_from-you the-all
all things come from you


Example: PSA 50:18
וַתִּ֣רֶץ עִמֹּ֑ו
wattirets ‘immow
and-you-are-pleased with-him
you agree with him
Example: ZEC 14:5
כָּל־קְדֹשִׁ֖ים עִמָּֽךְ׃
kol-qedoshim ‘immakh
all_holy-ones with-you
all the holy ones will be with you


When the preposition אֵת takes a pronominal suffix, it can be distinguished from the direct object marker. The preposition will take a hireq vowel with a daghesh in the taw consonant (see examples below).

Example: PSA 12:4
שְׂפָתֵ֣ינוּ אִתָּ֑נוּ
sefathenu ‘ittanu
our-lips with-us.
our lips speak and they make us prevail.
Example: PRO 1:11
לְכָ֪ה אִ֫תָּ֥נוּ
lekhah ‘ittanu
walk with-us
come with us

Attached to a participle

When attached to a participle, the pronominal suffix can function as a personal pronoun, a possessive adjective, or as a noun in construct relationship with the particle.

Attached to an infinitive construct

as object of the infinitive

When attached to an infinitive construct, the pronominal suffix can function as the object of the verbal action.


as subject of the infinitive

When attached to an infinitive construct, the pronominal suffix can function as the subject of the verbal action described by the infinitive. In these cases, often the object of the infinitive (with the direct object marker) will appear immediately following the infinitive.


as possessive adjective describing the infinitive


Attached to a particle


the direct object marker (אֵת)

When the direct object marker takes a pronominal suffix, it can be distinguished from the preposition אֵת. The direct object marker will take a holem vowel without a daghesh in the taw consonant (see examples below).

Example: 1SA 17:9
וַעֲבַדְתֶּ֖ם אֹתָֽנוּ׃
wa’avadtem ‘othanu
and-you-will-serve [dir.obj]-us.
then you will serve us.
Example: JDG 10:13
וְאַתֶּם֙ עֲזַבְתֶּ֣ם אֹותִ֔י
we’attem ‘azavtem ‘owthi
And-you have-left [dir.obj]-me
Yet you abandoned me

the particle הִנֵּה

When attached to the demonstrative particle הִנֵּה, a pronominal suffix can function as either the object of the particle or the subject of a verbal participle that immediately follows the particle.

as object of the particle

In these cases, the pronominal suffix functions as the object of the verbal action expressed by the demonstrative particle.

Example: ISA 65:1
אָמַ֨רְתִּי֙ הִנֵּ֣נִי הִנֵּ֔נִי אֶל־גֹּ֖וי לֹֽא־קֹרָ֥א
‘amartiy hinneni hinneni ‘el-gowy lo-qora vishmi
I-said look-me look-me to_nation not_called by-my-name.
I said “”Here I am! Here I am!”” to a nation that did not call on my name.
as subject of a participle

Sometimes, a pronominal suffix attached to the particle הִנֵּה functions as the subject of a participle that immediately follows the particle.