Stem Hiphil

Summary

The Hiphil stem generally expresses causative action in active voice, but it can also express other kinds of verbal action depending on the context and the specific verb.

Article

The Hiphil form is a verbal stem formation in Biblical Hebrew, usually indicated by a הִ prefix before the 1st radical and a hireq-yod (or sometimes tsere) vowel under the 2nd radical of the verb. (This ה changes in the participle and Imperfect forms.) The Hiphil stem is generally used to express causative action in active voice. In many cases the noun derived from the same root is the object or result of the hiphil verb associated with that root. For example, the Hiphil verb הִמְטִיר means “to cause to rain down”; the noun מָטָר means “rain”.

Note

It is recommended to always check a dictionary or lexicon for the meaning of a specific verb, because this stem may express many different kinds of action in different contexts.

Form

Paradigm

Hiphil Perfect Paradigm
Parsing Hebrew Transliteration Gloss
masculine singular third person הִקְטִיל hiqtil he caused to kill
feminine singular third person הִקְטִילָה hiqtilah she caused to kill
masculine singular second person הִקְטַלְתָּ hiqtalta you caused to kill
feminine singular second person הִקְטַלְתְּ hiqtalt you caused to kill
common singular first person הִקְטַלְתִּי hiqtalti I caused to kill
common plural third person הִקְטִילוּ hiqtilu they caused to kill
masculine plural second person הִקְטַלְתֶּם hiqtaltem you caused to kill
feminine plural second person הִקְטַלְתֶּן hiqtalten you caused to kill
common plural first person הִקְטַלְנוּ hiqtalnu we caused to kill
Hiphil Imperfect Paradigm
Parsing Hebrew Transliteration Gloss
masculine singular third person יַקְטִיל yaqtil he will cause to kill
feminine singular third person תַּקְטִיל taqtil she will cause to kill
masculine singular second person תַּקְטִיל taqtil you will cause to kill
feminine singular second person תַּקְטִילִי taqtili you will cause to kill
common singular first person אַקְטִיל ‘aqtil I will cause to kill
masculine plural third person יַקְטִילוּ yaqtilu they will cause to kill
feminine plural third person תַּקְטֵלְנָה taqtelenah they will cause to kill
masculine plural second person תַּקְטִילוּ taqtilu you will cause to kill
feminine plural second person תַּקְטֵלְנָה taqtelenah you will cause to kill
common plural first person נַקְטִיל naqtil we will cause to kill
Hiphil Sequential Perfect Paradigm
Parsing Hebrew Transliteration Gloss
masculine singular third person וְהִקְטִיל wehiqtil (and) he will cause to kill
feminine singular third person וְהִקְטִילָה wehiqtilah (and) she will cause to kill
masculine singular second person וְהִקְטַלְתָּ wehiqtalta (and) you will cause to kill
feminine singular second person וְהִקְטַלְתְּ wehiqtalt (and) you will cause to kill
common singular first person וְהִקְטַלְתִּי wehiqtalti (and) I will cause to kill
common plural third person וְהִקְטִילוּ wehiqtilu (and) they will cause to kill
masculine plural second person וְהִקְטַלְתֶּם wehiqtaltem (and) you will cause to kill
feminine plural second person וְהִקְטַלְתֶּן wehiqtalten (and) you will cause to kill
common plural first person וְהִקְטַלְנוּ wehiqtalnu (and) we will cause to kill
Hiphil Sequential Imperfect Paradigm
Parsing Hebrew Transliteration Gloss
masculine singular third person וַיַּקְטִיל wayyaqtil (and) he caused to kill
feminine singular third person וַתַּקְטִיל wattaqtil (and) she caused to kill
masculine singular second person וַתַּקְטִיל wattaqtil (and) you caused to kill
feminine singular second person וַתַּקְטִילִי wattaqtili (and) you caused to kill
common singular first person וָאַקְטִיל wa’aqtil (and) I caused to kill
masculine plural third person וַיַּקְטִילוּ wayyaqtilu (and) they caused to kill
feminine plural third person וַתַּקְטֵלְנָה wattaqtelenah (and) they caused to kill
masculine plural second person וַתַּקְטִילוּ wattaqtilu (and) you caused to kill
feminine plural second person וַתַּקְטֵלְנָה wattaqtelenah (and) you caused to kill
common plural first person וַנַּקְטִיל wannaqtil (and) we caused to kill
Hiphil Infinitive Paradigm
Parsing Hebrew Transliteration Gloss
Infinitive Construct הַקְטִיל haqtil cause to kill
Infinitive Absolute הַקְטֵל haqtel cause to kill
Hiphil Imperative Paradigm
Parsing Hebrew Transliteration Gloss
masculine singular הַקְטֵל haqtel you must cause to kill
feminine singular הַקְטִילִי haqtili you must cause to kill
masculine plural הַקְטִילוּ haqtilu you must cause to kill
feminine plural הַקְטֵלְנָה haqtelenah you must cause to kill
Hiphil Jussive Paradigm
Parsing Hebrew Transliteration Gloss
masculine singular third person יַקְטֵל yaqtel may he cause to kill
feminine singular third person תַּקְטֵל taqtel may she cause to kill
masculine singular second person תַּקְטֵל taqtel may you cause to kill
feminine singular second person תַּקְטִילִי taqteli may you cause to kill
masculine plural third person יַקְטִילוּ yaqtelu may they cause to kill
feminine plural third person תַּקְטִילְנָה taqtelenah may they cause to kill
masculine plural second person תַּקְטִילוּ taqtelu may you cause to kill
feminine plural second person תַּקְטִילְנָה taqtelenah may you cause to kill
Hiphil Cohortative Paradigm
Parsing Hebrew Transliteration Gloss
common singular first person אַקְטִילָה ‘aqtilah let me cause to kill
common plural first person נַקְטִילָה naqtilah let us cause to kill
Hiphil Participle (active voice) Paradigm
Parsing Hebrew Transliteration Gloss
masculine singular מַקְטִיל maqtil causing to kill
feminine singular מַקְטֶלֶת maqteleth causing to kill
masculine plural מַקְטִילִים maqtilim causing to kill
feminine plural מַקְטִילוֹת maqtiloth causing to kill

Function

The Hiphil stem can express any of the following kinds of verbal action:

Expresses causative action

Causative action means that the subject of the verb is causing the object of the verb either to perform the verbal action (for dynamic verb) or to be in the state described by the verb (for stative verbs). The Hiphil stem usually serves this causative function with dynamic verbs (and sometimes with stative verbs also). A good example is the verb בּוֹא. In the Qal stem, the verb בּוֹא expresses the simple action “to come” or “to go”. But in the Hiphil stem, the verb בּוֹא expresses the causative action “to bring” (meaning, to cause something to come/go). In English, causative action is expressed using the main verb “to cause” paired with the infinitive of the verbal action in view. In Biblical Hebrew, the causative nature of the verbal action is expressed by the Hiphil form of the verb itself with no additional verbal element.

Example: GEN 4:3
וַיָּבֵ֨א קַ֜יִן מִפְּרִ֧י הָֽאֲדָמָ֛ה מִנְחָ֖ה לַֽיהוָֽה
wayyave qayin mipperi ha’adamah minhah layhwah
And-he-brought Cain from-fruit-of the-ground offering to-Yahweh
Cain brought some of the fruit of the ground as an offering to
Yahweh.
Example: 1KI 1:43
אֲבָ֕ל אֲדֹנֵ֥ינוּ הַמֶּֽלֶךְ־דָּוִ֖ד הִמְלִ֥יךְ אֶת־שְׁלֹמֹֽה
‘aval ‘adonenu hammelekh-dawid himlikh ‘eth-shelomoh
But our-lord the-king_David he-made-king [dir.obj]_Solomon
But king David our lord crowned Solomon king

Expresses various kinds of simple or causative action

In Biblical Hebrew, some verbs are found only in the Hiphil stem (and/or its derivative stem formations). In these cases, the Hiphil usually expresses a simple action which is causative by its very nature. A good example is the Hebrew verb סוּת, which occurs only in the Hiphil stem and means “to incite” or “to entice”. A dictionary or lexicon will indicate all the stem formations in which a particular verb is found as well as the appropriate meaning(s).

Example: JER 43:3
כִּ֗י בָּרוּךְ֙ בֶּן־נֵ֣רִיָּ֔ה מַסִּ֥ית אֹתְךָ֖ בָּ֑נוּ
ki barukh ben-neriyyah massith ‘othekha banu
for Baruch son-of_Neriah is-inciting [dir.obj]-you in-us
For Baruch son of Neriah is inciting you against us

Some verbs express different meanings in different stem formations. A good example is the verb גָּלָה. In the Qal stem, the verb גָּלָה expresses the simple action “to uncover” or “to reveal”. But in the Hiphil stem, the verb גָּלָה expresses the simple action “to exile”. Again, this will be indicated by a dictionary or lexicon.

Example: AMO 5:27
וְהִגְלֵיתִ֥י אֶתְכֶ֖ם מֵהָ֣לְאָה לְדַמָּ֑שֶׂק
wehiglethi ‘ethkhem mehal’ah ledammaseq
And-I-will-exile [dir.obj]-you from-beyond to-Damascus
Therefore I will exile you beyond Damascus

Some verbs express the same meaning in multiple stem formations. A good example is the verb יָדַע, which expresses the causative action “to make known” (meaning, to cause to know) in both the Piel stem and the Hiphil stem. This also will be indicated by a dictionary or lexicon.

Example: PSA 98:2
הוֹדִ֣יעַ יְ֭הוָה יְשׁוּעָת֑וֹ
hodia’ yehwah yeshu’atho
He-made-known Yahweh his-salvation
Yahweh has made known his salvation

The Hiphil stem can also be used to express miscellaneous kinds of simple or causative action that might not follow any of the other descriptions listed above. As always, the specific meaning of the verb will be indicated by a dictionary or lexicon.

Hiphil stem expressing idiomatic action:

Example: GEN 6:12
וַיַּ֧רְא אֱלֹהִ֛ים אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְהִנֵּ֣ה נִשְׁחָ֑תָה
כִּֽי־הִשְׁחִ֧ית כָּל־בָּשָׂ֛ר אֶת־דַּרְכּ֖וֹ עַל־הָאָרֶץ
wayyar ‘elohim ‘eth-ha’arets wehinneh nishhathah ki-hishhith
kol-basar ‘eth-darko ‘al-ha’arets
And-he-saw God [dir.obj]_the-land and-behold it-was-corrupt
because_made-corrupt all_flesh [dir.obj]_his-way on_the-land.
And God saw the land and behold it was corrupt because all flesh
had corrupted its ways upon the land.

Hiphil stem declaring a state rather than expressing an action:

Example: 1KI 8:32
לְהַרְשִׁ֣יעַ רָשָׁ֔ע לָתֵ֥ת דַּרְכּ֖וֹ בְּרֹאשׁ֑וֹ
וּלְהַצְדִּ֣יק צַדִּ֔יק לָ֥תֶת ל֖וֹ כְּצִדְקָתֽוֹ׃
leharshia’ rasha’ latheth darko berosho ulehatsdiq tsaddiq
latheth lo ketsidqatho
to-condemn evil-person to-give his-way on-his-head
and-to-declare-righteous righteous-person to-give to-him according-to-his-righteousness
To condemn the evildoer, to punish him according to his actions,
and to vindicate the righteous man, to reward him according to his righteousness.