Stem Qal

Summary

The Qal stem is the stem formation that is the simplest of form in Biblical Hebrew. The Qal stem is generally used to express either simple action or stative action.

Article

In Biblical Hebrew, the Qal stem is the simplest of all the verbal stem formations in both form and function. All the other stem formations are derived from the Qal form. It is by far the most common form of a verb, and it almost always expresses either simple action in active voice (for dynamic verbs) or stative action in passive voice (for stative verbs, which do not have active voice). In English, stative verbs require the helping verb “to be” for proper translation value (see example). In Biblical Hebrew, the stative nature of the verb is indicated by the verb itself without requiring any additional helping verbs.

Form

Paradigm

Depending on the verb form, there are often two or three different ways of conjugating a verb in the Qal stem. Which way is used depends on which verb it is.

Qal Perfect Paradigm 1
Parsing Hebrew Transliteration Gloss
masculine singular third person קָטַל qatal he killed
feminine singular third person קָטְלָה qatlah she killed
masculine singular second person קָטַלְתָּ qatalta you killed
feminine singular second person קָטַלְתְּ qatalt you killed
common singular first person קָטַלְתִּי qatalti I killed
common plural third person קָטְלוּ qatlu they killed
masculine plural second person קְטַלְתֶּם qetaltem you killed
feminine plural second person קְטַלְתֶּן qetalten you killed
common plural first person קָטַלְנוּ qatalnu we killed
Qal Perfect Paradigm 2
Parsing Hebrew Transliteration Gloss
masculine singular third person כָּבֵד kaved he was heavy
feminine singular third person כָּבְדָה kavdah she was heavy
masculine singular second person כָּבַדְתָּ kavadta you were heavy
feminine singular second person כָּבַדְתְּ kavadt you were heavy
common singular first person כָּבַדְתִּי kavadti I was heavy
common plural third person כָּבְדוּ kavdu they were heavy
masculine plural second person כְּבַדְתֶּם kevadtem you were heavy
feminine plural second person כְּבַדְתֶּן kevadten you heavy
common plural first person כָּבַדְנוּ kavadnu we were heavy
Qal Perfect Paradigm 3
Parsing Hebrew Transliteration Gloss
masculine singular third person קָטֹן qaton he was small
feminine singular third person קָטְנָה qatnah she was small
masculine singular second person קָטֹנְתָּ qatonetta you were small
feminine singular second person קָטֹנְתְּ qatont you were small
common singular first person קָטֹנְתִּי qatonetti I was small
common plural third person קָטְנוּ qatnu they were small
masculine plural second person קְטָנְתֶּם qetantem you were small
feminine plural second person קְטָנְתֶּן qetanten you were small
common plural first person קָטֹנּוּ qatonnu we were small
Qal Imperfect Paradigm 1
Parsing Hebrew Transliteration Gloss
masculine singular third person יִקְטֹל yiqtol he will kill
feminine singular third person תִּקְטֹל tiqtol she will kill
masculine singular second person תִּקְטֹל tiqtol you will kill
feminine singular second person תִּקְטְלִי tiqteli you will kill
common singular first person אֶקְטֹל ‘eqtol I will kill
masculine plural third person יִקְטְלוּ yiqtelu they will kill
feminine plural third person תִּקְטֹלְנָה tiqtolenah they will kill
masculine plural second person תִּקְטְלוּ tiqtelu you will kill
feminine plural second person תִּקְטֹלְנָה tiqtolenah you will kill
common plural first person נִקְטֹל niqtol we will kill
Qal Imperfect Paradigm 2
Parsing Hebrew Transliteration Gloss
masculine singular third person יִכְבַּד yikhbad he will be heavy
feminine singular third person תִּכְבַּד tikhbad she will be heavy
masculine singular second person תִּכְבַּד tikhbad you will be heavy
feminine singular second person תִּכְבְּדִי tikhbedi you will be heavy
common singular first person אֶכְבַּד ‘ekhbad I will be heavy
masculine plural third person יִכְבְּדוּ yikhbedu they will be heavey
feminine plural third person תִּכְבַּדְנָה tikhbadnah they will be heavy
masculine plural second person תִּכְבְּדוּ tikhbedu you will be heavy
feminine plural second person תִּכְבַּדְנָה tikhbadnah you will be heavy
common plural first person נִכְבַּד nikhbad we will be heavy
Qal Sequential Perfect Paradigm
Parsing Hebrew Transliteration Gloss
masculine singular third person וְקָטַל weqatal (and) he will kill
feminine singular third person וְקָטְלָה weqatlah (and) she will kill
masculine singular second person וְקָטַלְתָּ weqatalta (and) you will kill
feminine singular second person וְקָטַלְתְּ weqatalt (and) you will kill
common singular first person וְקָטַלְתִּי weqatalti (and) I will kill
common plural third person וְקָטְלוּ weqatlu (and) they will kill
masculine plural second person וּקְטַלְתֶּם uqetaltem (and) you will kill
feminine plural second person וּקְטַלְתֶּן uqetalten (and) you will kill
common plural first person וְקָטַלְנוּ weqatalnu (and) we will kill
Qal Sequential Imperfect Paradigm
Parsing Hebrew Transliteration Gloss
masculine singular third person וַיִּקְטֹל wayyiqtol (and) he killed
feminine singular third person וַתִּקְטֹל wattiqtol (and) she killed
masculine singular second person וַתִּקְטֹל wattiqtol (and) you killed
feminine singular second person וַתִּקְטְלִי wattiqteli (and) you killed
common singular first person וָאֶקְטֹל wa’eqtol (and) I killed
masculine plural third person וַיִקְטְלוּ wayiqtelu (and) they killed
feminine plural third person וַתִּקְטֹלְנָה wattiqtolenah (and) they killed
masculine plural second person וַתִּקְטְלוּ wattiqtelu (and) you killed
feminine plural second person וַתִּקְטֹלְנָה wattiqtolenah (and) you killed
common plural first person וַנִּקְטֹל wanniqtol (and) we killed
Qal Infinitive Paradigm
Parsing Hebrew Transliteration Gloss
Infinitive Construct 1 קְטֹל qetol kill
Infinitive Construct 2 שְׁכַב shekhav lie down
Infinitive Absolute קָטוֹל qatol kill
Qal Imperative Paradigm 1
Parsing Hebrew Transliteration Gloss
masculine singular קְטֹל qetol you must kill
feminine singular יִקְטְלִי yiqteli you must kill
masculine plural יִקְטְלוּ yiqtelu you must kill
feminine plural קְטֹלְנָה qetolenah you must kill
Qal Imperative Paradigm 2
Parsing Hebrew Transliteration Gloss
masculine singular כְּבַד kevad you must be heavy
feminine singular כִּבְדִי kivdi you must be heavy
masculine plural כִּבְדוּ kivdu you must be heavy
feminine plural כְּבַדְנָה kevadnah you must be heavy

Jussive 1

Note

The jussive form in the Qal stem is recognizable only for select verbs. Here the sample verb is גָּלָה (to uncover), where the 3rd radical (ה) has dropped out.

Qal Jussive Paradigm 1
Parsing Hebrew Transliteration Gloss
masculine singular third person יִגֶל yigel may he uncover
feminine singular third person תִּגֶל tigel may she uncover
masculine singular second person תִּגֶל tigel may you uncover
feminine singular second person תִּגֶלִי tigeli may you uncover
masculine plural third person יִגֶלוּ yigelu may they uncover
feminine plural third person תִּגֶלְנָה tigelnah may they uncover
masculine plural second person תִּגֶלוּ tigelu may you uncover
feminine plural second person תִּגֶלְנָה tigelnah may you uncover

Jussive 2

Here the sample verb is קוּם (to rise up), where the 2nd radical (a shureq vowel) shortens to a holem vowel.

Qal Jussive Paradigm 2
Parsing Hebrew Transliteration Gloss
masculine singular third person יָקֹם yaqom may he rise up
feminine singular third person תָּקֹם taqom may she rise up
masculine singular second person תָּקֹם taqom may you rise up
feminine singular second person תָּקֹמִי taqomi may you rise up
masculine plural third person יָקֹמוּ yaqomu may they rise up
feminine plural third person תְּקֹמֶינָה teqomeynah may they rise up
masculine plural second person תָּקֹמוּ taqomu may you rise up
feminine plural second person תְּקֹמֶינָה teqomeynah may you rise up

Jussive 3

Here the sample verb is שִׂים (to set), where the 2nd radical (a hireq-yod vowel) shortens to a tsere vowel.

Qal Jussive Paradigm 3
Parsing Hebrew Transliteration Gloss
masculine singular third person יָשֵׂם yasem may he set
feminine singular third person תָּשֵׂם tasem may she set
masculine singular second person תָּשֵׂם tasem may you set
feminine singular second person תָּשֵׂמִי tasemi may you set
masculine plural third person יָשֵׂמוּ yasemu may they set
feminine plural third person תְּשֵׂמֶינָה tesemeynah may they set
masculine plural second person תָּשֵׂמוּ tasemu may you set
feminine plural second person תְּשֵׂמֶינָה tesemeynah may you set
Qal Cohortative Paradigm
Parsing Hebrew Transliteration Gloss
common singular אֶקְטֹלָה ‘eqtolah let me kill
common plural נִקְטֹהלָה niqtohlah let us kill
Qal Participle 1 (active voice) Paradigm
Parsing Hebrew Transliteration Gloss
masculine singular absolute קֹטֵל qoten killing / killer
feminine singular absolute קֹטֶלֶת / קֹטְלָה qotelet / qotelah killing / killer
masculine plural absolute קֹטְלִים qotelim killing / killers
feminine plural absolute קֹטְלוֹת qoteloth killing / killers
Qal Participle 2 (active voice) Paradigm
Parsing Hebrew Transliteration Gloss
masculine singular absolute כָּבֵד kaved being heavy
feminine singular absolute כָּבֶדֶת / כָּבְדָה kavedet / kavdah being heavy
masculine plural absolute כָּבְדִים kavdim being heavy
feminine plural absolute כָּבְדוֹת kavdoth being heavy
Qal Participle 3 (active voice) Paradigm
Parsing Hebrew Transliteration Gloss
masculine singular absolute קָטֹן qaton being small
feminine singular absolute קָטֶנֶת / קָטְנָה qateneth / qatnah being small
masculine plural absolute קָטְנִים qatnim being small
feminine plural absolute קָטְנוֹת qatnoth being small
Qal Passive Participle (passive voice) Paradigm
Parsing Hebrew Transliteration Gloss
masculine singular absolute קָטוּל qatul killer / killed
feminine singular absolute קְטוּלָה qetulah killer / killed
masculine plural absolute קְטוּלִים qetulim killers / killed
feminine plural absolute קְטוּלוֹת qetuloth killers / killed

Examples

Example: GEN 16:2 –– expressing simple action (dynamic verb)
וַתֹּ֨אמֶר שָׂרַ֜י אֶל־אַבְרָ֗ם
wattomer saray ‘el-‘avram
And-she-said Sarai to_Abram
So Sarai said to Abram
Example: GEN 6:11 –– expressing stative action (stative verb)
וַתִּמָּלֵ֥א הָאָ֖רֶץ חָמָֽס
wattimmale ha’arets hamas
and-it-was-full the-earth violence
and it was filled with violence.